Prepare for GRE


PayPerPost, Inc

PPP Direct

Saturday, November 28, 2009

Bhagavad Gita, Ramayana, Vedas

Bhagavad Gita: It is the most important holy book of the Hindus. The theme of the book is stated almost at the beginning of the book, when Arjuna, the disciple asks Lord Krishna to tell him how he can recognize a man who knows truth; that is how he can identify one who is illuminated. Krishna replies in effect, “A man who is not affected by achievement or failure, which is free of emotions such as anger, fear, pride, vanity, jealousy, hate; a man who has disciplined his mind-he is wise; he is illuminated.”

Ramayana: Another book which is loved by the Hindus is the Ramayana. It is the life history of Lord Rama, Hindu god next in importance to Lord Krishna. This book is an inspiration to the Hindus who wish to follow the path of devotion to elders, parents, and the maharishis and poets etc.

Vedas are the most ancient and sacred of Hindu scriptures. They are four canonical collections: Rig Veda, containing a thousand hymns, the Yajur Veda, rich in hymns and prayers, the Sama Veda, a book of revelations and chants and the religious services, and the Atharvana Veda replete with incantations. Veda means spiritual wisdom and the Vedas are so rich in knowledge that historians refer to the time in which they were formulated as the Vedic period, which was about 1500 BC.

Hinduism and Reincarnation

This is the third great truth of the Hindu religion. It means “recurring life.” It means that the soul of man-the atman or life essence-is ever on a round of births and rebirths. If a man dies, shall he live again? The Hindu answer is “Yes definitely. He will live again on this earth to work out his destiny and to reap the reward of his previous acts.” The theory of reincarnation explains the variety of personalities we find in the world, the striking gap between the rich and the poor, between the good and the bad, between the wise and not-so-wise. It explains all these seeming inequalities. It provides a solution to the perplexing puzzle of why one person dies young; another old. It explains the phenomenon of a genius. The doctrine of reincarnation prepares the Hindu for an eventual union with God in a state of immortal bliss. This union is the aim and purpose of life and in birth after birth the soul of the man has a chance to merge into the soul of God.

Hinduism and Karma

In the west Christians usually translate Karma as destiny or fate. They say that Karma is something to do with “good breaks” or “bad breaks” or with things that just seem to happen. To the Hindu, however, Karma is a law-an immutable law. A man is what he does, in respect of his fortune and his place in life because of Karma or deed. The Karma fixes the consequences of one’s acts. It cannot be tempered with or destroyed. Karma, strictly speaking, is neither good nor bad. It simply is. We make it. Our past deeds or acts make it. We are it. Karma is the heart of the principle “whatever a man sows that he will also reap.”

Three basic truths in Hindu religion

1. The law of identification, which can be stated in the old and oft-repeated Sanskrit phrase: Tat Twam Asi, (Sanskrit word) which is to say: “Thou art Thou” (Sanskrit word) or “God and I are one” or “He who is yonder, yonder person, I am he”.
2. In Hindus, the soul is everlasting in a sense that can hardly be grasped by other religions. The fact that it survives the body is no mystery, no miracle, for it existed before the body was formed. “Never have I not been” says Lord Krishna to Arjun, his disciple. “Never have thou not been and never shall the time come when thou shall not be.”

The soul, according to Hindus, Is the Atman(Sanskrit word) or the only true self. Everything else is illusion or Maya. The soul alone is real. A western Christian mystic Mister Ekhart, who was profoundly impressed by Hinduism, explained the law of identification by saying that the eye with which we see God is the same eye with which He sees us.
3. Every religious practice of a true Hindu is directed toward the realization of his oneness with God. To know oneness is to know God. To live as though the real “I” is eternal and indestructible is to live God. To discover that everything outside this reality is Maya is to discover God. To grasp the full meaning of this oneness is to realize the essence of Hinduism. This assumption on the part of a Hindu goes far beyond the customary Christian belief that our lives are a reflection of God’s life, or that we are the sons and daughters of God, or that God lives in us. To the Hindu the true self in each one of us is Atman(Sanskrit word). It is “tat twam asi” (Sanskrit words) and as the believing Hindu speaks the words flow out to the eternal God. A Hindu claims that an answer comes to him which says, “This and only this is truth.”

Hinduism – The Religion of the Philosophers

In India religion is a part of life for every Hindu. Marcus Bach, an American researcher, says; “Scratch a Hindu and you will find a philosopher. If you listen you will hear the ways and wonders of the Gods from Indians. If you look you will find a shrine in every village, and the telltale signs of worship in nearly every home. This is Hinduism, the faith about a billion people who not only believe that they will live again but are convinced they have lived before.”
The doctrine of the wheel of life is one of the principal characteristics of Hinduism. Whereas other religions believe that man’s life is a three-act play-birth, death and immortality- Hindus think in terms of an endless drama: birth, death and rebirth, death and rebirth, death and rebirth… They believe that the soul has always existed and will continue to exist until it is merged with God, who is the Soul of Universe.

Human Thinking

Thinking can be characterized in terms of knowledge, skill, intention, performance and achievements of the individual. Language and thought are the basic vehicles of problem solving which initially and ultimately would depend on the individual himself, the information available to him, his competence to use that information, his intention or desire to achieve a particular goal, and the kind of activities he engages en route the goal.
Early experimental psychologists attempted to identify the fundamental building blocks of thought. Just as it is possible to understand a substance in terms of molecular structure, a molecule in terms of its atoms, or atoms in terms of its elementary particles, it should be possible to understand its behavior in terms of its fundamental components and some forms of associations among them. The analysis of the structure of thought has led psychologists in several different directions.

Thursday, November 26, 2009

Personality Theories – Psychoanalysis

Formulated by Sigmund Freud, this theory had such originality, depth, and complexity that its impact on western culture was deeply felt for seventy years. Freud’s conclusion about personality is being id, ego and superego. The id seeks only finding pleasure and to avoid pain. Since id operates in an undisciplined and immature way and cannot make rational decisions, the ego develops to guide these impulses and functions in accordance with the reality principle. A very important function of the ego is the satisfaction of the needs of the id but in a proper time, mode and place sequence. Besides governing the id and its impulses, ego must also control and direct the impulses of superego which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal. Freud believed that the energy for all motivation and the energy for the working together of the three components of personality-id, ego and superego, derives from instinctual energy of the id. The id energy is divided into other life instincts or death instincts. In Freud’s view personality develops and grows as a result of a variety of processes, stresses and experiences, such as maturation, deprivation, conflict and anxiety.

Personality Theories – Self theory

The best known self-theorist is Carl Rogers. The individual as a whole is the central focus of Roger’s theory of personality. He distinguishes between two components of the personality – the organism and the self. The organism is the center of experience, and experience is everything that is going on within a person at a particular time. The self, is best thought as the concept of ‘I’, ‘me’, ‘myself’. The self is in fact one’s own awareness of himself as he works, plays, studies, sings, relates to others, and so on. In order to achieve the goal of self growth, four conditions are necessary. First, the choices available must be clearly perceives, that is, the individual must be aware of alternatives. Second, the choices must be clearly symbolized. Third, he must be loved and respected by others. Stemming from positive regard by others is the fourth condition necessary for self growth.

Theories on personality

There is no single definition of personality. Nearly everyone, theorist and layman alike, has his own idea of what personality is. The term personality comes from the Greek persona which means “mask”. Thus personality is thought of as the appearance a person presents to the family and outsiders. The personality has, thus, been defined as a totality of a person’s manner or his general behavior pattern, that is, the sum of his knowledge, skills, motives, and actions. Another conception of personality involves mainly on surface characteristics such as social skills. A personality description typical of this notion might be. “He is outgoing, smooth and confident”.
Personality theories developed so far can be divided into five major schools of thought:
1.    Psychoanalytic
2.    Self-Study based
3.    Cognitive
4.    Trait
5.    Learning Theory Approach.
Let’s see in detail on the above five theories in further posts.

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Goals of Psychology

The goal of psychology is to understand and explain behavior, that is, to isolate the reasons for the observed behavior. This process involves not only the formulation of the theories which are organized and consistent with known facts, but also development of hypotheses about relationships which are yet to be proved. A theory is also supposed to help us make reasonable guesses when we don’t know. Explanation is, in fact, the real basic field of research in psychology. The psychologist may be able to describe and measure anxiety. In principle, almost anyone with reasonable intelligence and relevant reference books may diagnose and treat any mental disease, without knowing what caused that disease. Basic psychology is an attempt to understand in detail many significant issues, including the processes of mental illness. The fundamental knowledge and skill involved in reading the basis of interaction between motivation and performance.

Saturday, November 14, 2009

Inquiry and Replies letter

Letters concerning inquires should be clear, specified to the point.

State clearly what information you need. Be it a catalogue, a price list, an estimate, a quotation, a specimen or a sample.

Write specifically about the design, size, shape, price, and quantity, quality etc. about the product or service in which you are interested.

Be brief to the point in your inquiry. Once you have said what you want, stop there and finish your letter.

All inquiries should be promptly and carefully replied. It is discourteous to keep an inquiry for long. This can annoy your customer which means a loss in your business

Monday, November 2, 2009

Interview Letters - Reference Letter and Reply letter to reference

Taking up reference:

Dear Mr. Dolly,

Mr. Peter, working with you as a clerk for the last eight years has applied for the office assistant post and has referred us to you for information about him.

I shall be grateful if you will say whether his services with you are satisfactory and if he can handle a responsible job like that of office assistance.

Any information you send will be much appreciated and kept confidential.

Yours sincerely,
M. Richard
Reply to above:

Dear Mr. Richard,

I am glad to have your letter of 18th April, I have pleasure in informing you that Mr. Peter is very responsible person and has excellent of office routine. He is efficient, intelligent and always punctual. The job of an “Office Assistant’, you wish to offer, suits him most.

His services have been entirely satisfactory to us. We wish him all success. He is leaving us as we cannot offer him better prospects owing to limited scope of our business.

Yours sincerely,
M. N. Dolly

Interview Letters - Calling Letter for interview and Enquiring about the interview result

Calling for an interview:

Mr. Raj Dev,
Dear Sir,

With reference to your application for the post of a clerk, we shall be glad if you will call on us for a personal interview on 24th March at 3 P.M.
Please bring all certificates and testimonial in support of your application.

Yours faithfully,

Enquiring about the result of interview:


Dear Sir,

You had been kind enough in calling me for an interview for the post of clerk in your office, on 24th March.

Since then more than two weeks have passed and I have not heard anything from you. As far as I can think I did fairly well in the interview.

May I request you to please communicate to me about your decision?

Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,

Interview Letter - Application for the post of a clerk

Dear Sir,
Sub: Application for the post of clerk

This has reference to your today’s advertisement in “Times”, for the post of a clerk. Since I can fulfill the requirement of the job advertised, I am submitting my application for your consideration.

I have passed B.Com from the University of Delhi in first class division with 88% marks in accountancy, this year.

During my four year, B.Com course, I was working as an honorary part-time clerk for the college Union and have thus gained sufficient practical experience of filling, dispatching, billing and drafting.

I am now 22 years of age and possess a sound physique. I am enclosing two testimonials- one from Mr. Brewer, our principal and another from Mr. Jack, former chairman of our collage trust.

I shall be glad to give you any further information you may require, at time of interview.

Thanking you,
Yours faithfully,

Sunday, November 1, 2009

Circular letters - Suggesting your client to buy before budget

Dear Sirs,

Re : D.E.K. Electronic Plastic Welders.
      Due to the recent amendment in the Minimum Wages Act, by the Government and heavy increase in the cost of Raw Materials and Components, the prices of D.E.K Electronic plastic Welders is likely to be raised in the forthcoming budget. The increase in price in expected between 15 & 20 %.
     If you are interested in the purchasing this machine, we would suggest that you should immediately place an order for the same at its existing price of Rs. 2,700/- ex-godown.
     Every order should be accompanied with a draft of Rs. 1000/- which should reach us before the afternoon of 27th February. All orders received after this will be executed on this revised prices.

Yours faithfully,
Thanking you,

Circular Letters - Annual Stock Clearance

Dear Sirs,
      We are pleased to inform you that our Annual Stock Clearance Sale will start from 13th March and will last one week.
      A special feature of this year's Stock Clearance Sale is that we have also added variety of leather goods and ready made garments apart from our usual stock of hosiery goods, cosmetics, raincoats, umbrellas, stationery articles, crockery and confectionery.
      There will be a separate bargain counter.
      Most of the stocks offered is fresh and some of the goods are even imported.
      We would suggest you to pay us a visit and make your selection.
     A complete list of goods offered for sale together with discount prices is enclosed for prior information.
Encl : Price List
Yours faithfully,

Saturday, October 31, 2009

Circular Letters - Announcing admission of a new partner

Dear Sirs,
     I have pleasure in informing you that owing to  large increase of my business, I have this day taken Mr. Cooper in my partnership and hereafter all business will be done in the name and style of.


     Mr. Cooper was sales Manager with M/s. KUWAIT TRADERS. Kuwait for ten years and has excellent selling experience of our product.

    Mr. Cooper also brings an investment of 320,000/- pounds which will enable us to expand our business by two times.

    I am grateful to you for the co-operation you have extended me so far and I hope you will continue the same in future also.

Yours faithfully,

Circular Letters - Retiring from business

Dear Sirs,
     As I am now getting on in years, I have decided to retire from business from 1 May.

     I have disposed of all my raw materials to M/s Jhonson & Co. The total stock of manufactured goods has been purchased by M/s. Tamta Bros. I am now left only with two machined of Parker Brand - 1967 in perfect running condition. Since you are a dealer in old machines of the same type, I would suggest that you may pay me a visit as early as you can and make me an offer for the same.

Yours faithfully,

This letter format tells to the partner that he is retiring from business as he is grown old and he is unable to carry out the business. Keep checking my blog for more and more letter formats.

Circular Letters - Council's circular to its members about packing problems

To All Members of the Council

Dear Sirs,
     M/s Packaging Corporation of India, New Delhi have been entrusted by the Government to conduct urgent investigations into the problems of Export Packaging.

    A study team is being appointed to visit different countries for assessing the packaging cost in different industries as also to suggest improvements in the existing methods of packaging in our country.

     The team is likely to leave India by the middle of September and it is requested that you may please fill the enclosed Questionaire and send the same to us by 18th July.

 Yours faithfully,
Questionnaire for Manufacturers of Packing Products

1. Brief details of your              1.
2. The type of packaging          2.
3. What is the proportion         3.
    of packaging cost to
    the selling price of the
    product ?
4. Do you evaluate pack-        4.
    aging cost at each step
    like storage, handling,
    distribution etc. ? Give
    brief details.
5. Have you ever tried to        5.
    reduce the packaging
    cost. ? Give brief details
    about the methods
    adopted and their results.
6. Give brief details about       6.
    the suppliers of packa-
    ging materials to your

Friday, October 30, 2009

Circular Letters - Requesting for donations

Dear friend,
       As you may be aware there are about 50 lakhs blind in our country. Just to keep these blind living the society has to bear an annual expense of Rs. 600 crores. This is a very heavy burden on a country with developing economy. Further, a number of people are becoming blind every year due to lack of food and preventive measures.
      In order to solve a part of the problem of rehabilating the blind AMIN HOME FOR THE BLIND made a humble beginning five years back by embarking upon a unique program-me of education and training-cum production. Apart from educating the blind, efforts are being made to install small scale industrial machines.
     Manufacture of handbags, toys, canning, office furniture etc. is already being done and further avenues are being explored.
     There are about 2000 blind in this institution and we are trying our best to see that each one of them produces something for the country and can live with self respect.
    To make our dreams a reality it is necessary that we should have large funds at our disposal, A number of friends are helping us by sending donations but much more is required.
    May we appeal to you to send your generous donations and also ask your friends to contribute to this noble cause?
   We may add here that all donations to this institution are emempted from Tax under section 80.6 of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
    Donations may please be sent by cheques in favour of Amin Home for Blind and marked 'Payee's A/c only',

Circular letters - Inviting to participate in book fair

Dear publisher,
      We are pleased to inform you that we are organizing III Book Fair from 15th December to 22nd December, at Shangrilla Hotel, Singapore.

     The theme of the Fair is BOOKS ASIA 1976. Books printed in 1976 in any language and published in any part of Asia will only be exhibited.
     Participation fee is $ 500/- per booth 3'x4' and you can take as many booths as you like subject of course to the availability of space.
    The response for the previous two Fairs was excellent. So much so that we had to refuse a number of participants in the II Fair owing to late entries received from them.
    A special catalog of 10000 books of 1975 will be issued at the time of the Fair and all these books will be made available for sale and display during eight days of the Fair. 8000 copies of the catalog will be published. There will be posted to all leading booksellers, leading libraries and participants.
   The Fair will be set open by Prime Minister or a Cabinet Minister.
   Special invitations will be sent to educational institutions ant other organizations for visiting the fair.
    The fair will remain open between 4 P.M. and 11 P.M. on all days except Sunday when it will be open from 3 P.M. to 11.30 P.M.
    As one of the leading publishers of Asia, it is a unique opportunity for you to exhibit your books and promote exports to other countries.
    Application Form is enclosed. This should be returned to us duly filled in and completed in all respects together with your bank draft towards participation fee, before 30th August. Brief details about the books to be exhibited in the Fair should also be sent with the Application Form to enable us to compile out catalog.
   For any further information regarding the fair, please write to-

Mr. Yaseen Ahmed,
Publicity officer,
III Book Fair,
Asia Books,
Rafles Place,
Yours faithfully,

Circular Letters - Informing customers about closing old showroom and opening new showroom

Dear sir,
Owing to transport and other difficulties we have decided to close our existing showroom from 31st August.
We have taken up a new showroom on ground floor of Triveni Building Nehru complex and the same will start functioning from 11th September.
Our present staff will be transferred to our new showroom. We are also appointing some more staff as a number of new products on hosiery and leather goods are being introduced.
Situated in the Capital's most modern complex with 11 amenities available, we shall be able to serve you much better from our new showroom.
We invite you on the opening ceremony at 10.30 A.M. on 5th September.

Yours faithfully

Monday, October 26, 2009

Commercial Letters - Letter from travelling agent while on tour and Letter on Reply to travelling agent

Letter from travelling agent while on tour 

Dear Sirs,
            On my very first day, I have visited all 7 parties of this town and I am happy to inform you that I have secured orders from 5 parties for the total value of $8000.
            M/s. Nixon & Sons have got enough stocks of our goods and M/s. Taxon & company is closed for seven days owing to the death of their proprietor.
            I shall leave for my next station to-night instead of tomorrow. Assuring you my hard and sincere work.
                                                                                                            Yours faithfully,

Reply to travelling agent

Dear Mr. Richard,
            I was so happy to have your letter of 18th December that I decided to congratulate you myself on your first day’s outstanding performance.
            The orders booked by you are very encouraging and I hope you will do still better in future.
            The two samples which were not ready when you left New York, have been air mailed to-day and M/s. Bright Bros will hand-over the same to you, when you call on them.
                                                                                                            With best wishes,

                                                                                                            Yours sincerely,

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Commercial Letters - Appointing a travelling agent

Dear Sir,

         With reference to your personal interview with the undersigned, this morning, we are pleased to appoint you our travelling agent on the following terms and conditions:-

1. That you will be given a monthly salarly of $500 plus 2% commission on the net value of orders secured by you.
2. That you will be entitled to first class rail-fare and a daily allowance of $20.
3. That you will book all orders on cash basis only.
4. That you will not do any work for anyone else, while on tour.
5. That either party can terminate the contract by giving 30 days notice in writing.
6. That all disputes will be subject to New York Courts only.

     If you accept the above conditions you may report for duty immediately and in no case later than 15th December.

Yours faithfully,

Note. Terms and conditions mentioned in the above letter can be reduced, modified/increased according to the convenience of the parties.

Commercial Letters - Terminating the sole Agency


Dear Sirs,
      We regret to say that despite our repeated requests and suggestions you have not cared to improve our sales in your state.
     We are now left with no choice except to terminate your agency and this may please be treated as 120 days notice as per term 13 of our agency agreement.
     Please clear all pending accounts at an early date so that we may return your cash security.

Yours faithfully,

Commercial Letters - Accepting terms of agency

Dear Sirs,
      With reference to your letter dated 25th may, we have pleasure in accepting your terms and conditions of sole-agency.
       We have today advised our bankers at New Delhi to transfer a sum of Rs. 5 lakhs to your account. Please send us your official receipt for the security deposit.
       We are pleased to place our initial order for 180 pieces. These may please be dispatched by Amritsar Transport Company instead of rail as they will deliver the goods at our showroom. Besides this being full load for two trucks, it will be economical also.
       In the meanwhile please airmail some publicity material so that we may sent the same to our customers.

Yours faithfully,

Note. It is not necessary that the distributor at Bombay should accept the terms and conditions as mentioned in the above letter. On the other hand if he finds that any condition is not acceptable to him or some other condition is acceptable to him with modification, he should write to the manufacturer accordingly.

Tuesday, October 20, 2009

Commercial Letters - Offering terms of agency

Dear Sirs,
      We thank you for your letter of 18th May and shall be glad to appoint you as our sole-agent for Maharashtra State on the following terms and conditions.

1. That the sole agency will mean sole distributorship of our coloured Tv and no other product manufactured by us.
2. That the sole-agency will be for the state of Maharashtra only.
3. That you will deposit with us a cash security of RS. 5 lakhs by a bank draft.
4. That your will give us an annual sale of Rs. 60 lakhs and a commission of 12.5% will be paid on this amount. The amount of commission will be settled annually or in case the minimum sale of Rs.60 lakhs is completed earlier, the commission will become payable. 2.5% extra commission will be allowed on your increase in sales to 75lakhs and 5% if the turnover exceeds Rs.1 crore.
5.That payment of bills will be made within 30days and credit at no time will go beyond Rs 20 lakhs including your cash security of Rs. 5 lakhs. Therefore in case where this limit of Rs. 20 lakhs is reached, further documents will be sent through bank for immediate payment.
6. That so long as you sell our coloured Tv, you will not sell any other coloured TV - not even of those firms for whom you are working as a sole distributor for their TV's.
7. That all publicity material, leaflets etc. price list etc, will be supplied at our expense.
8. That all goods will be supplied F.O.R. anywhere in Maharashtra State.
9. That all goods will be properly packed in wooden cases each TV to be packed separately, and no responsibility for any damage whatsoever, will be borne by us, once the goods leave our place. This however excludes any mechanical or technical defect which will be got removed at our cost.
10. That you will not pledge or mortgage our goods to any one at any time for any reason whatsoever.
11. That all special offers will entitle you to your usual commission apart from additional benefits of special offers.
12. That dispute if any will be subject to Delhi Courts only.

We hope you will find the above acceptable.
Please return us two copies of the agreement duly signed and stamped together with a draft for Rs. 5 lakhs.

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,

Encl.:--Agreement in triplicate.

Monday, October 19, 2009

Commercial Letters - Applying for Agency

Dear Sir,
          We refer to your to-day's advertisment in 'Indian Express' regarding appointment of stockists/agents for your coloured TV PANORAMA and are pleased to send the following information for your consideration.

1. We can offer a cash security upto 2lakhs.
2. We can guarantee an annual sale of RS. 50 lakhs, provided of course. Subject to our being appointed as exclusive distributor for the state of Maharashtra.
3. We have an excellent showroom on Hornby Road - Maharashtra's most popular business centre - its measurement are 100' * 80' Besides we have regular contacts with all the leading dealers of the state.
4. We shall pay all the bills within 45 days.
5. We shall receive all goods F.O.R. and any loss arising any-where till receipt of goods will be borne by you.
6. We shall expect a minimum commission of 15% and an additional 2% where our sales exceed RS. 60 lakhs.
7. We shall work as exclusive distributors in the state of Maharashtra.
8. We shall be entitled to all special offers, you might make from time to time, and our percentage of commission will not be affected under any cicumstance, whatsoever.
9. We are at liberty to sell any product similar to yours as long as the minimum annual sale of your product of RS. 50 lakhs is maintained.
10. All publicity matter including the price-lists in our name will be supplied to us at your cost.
11. All our orders will be executed within ten days from their dates
   As you may aware, we are exclusive distributors for Telerad and J.K. Tvs for Maharashtra.
   State Bank of India and National and Grindlays Bank, Hornby Road, Bombay will be glad to give you any information you may like about our financial status.
  Above information, we hope, will fully convince you for appointing us as your sole-distributor for the State of Maharashtra.
  We shall be glad to hear from you at an early date.
                                                                                     Yours faithfully,

Thursday, October 8, 2009

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

Indian Constitution - part4 (Acquiring Citizenship)

The citizenship can be acquired by birth, by descent or by naturalization. Except in the case of children born in India to foreign diplomats accredited to this country or to enemy aliens, every person born in India on or after the 26th of January, 1950, is a citizen of India by birth.

A person born outside India on or after the 26th of January, 1950, is a citizen of  India by descent if his or her father happened to be citizen of India at the time of his or her birth. Citizenship can be acquired by naturalisation by persons of Indian origin ordinarily living outside India and Pakistan, by women married to citizens of India, by persons belonging to other countries who fulfil certain conditions laid down in citizenship Act of 1955.

single citizenship

Sunday, September 13, 2009

Indian Constitution - part3 (Single Citizenship)

Single Citizenship:
The Indian Constitution provides for a single and uniform citizenship i.e., a person in any state in India does not need to acquire separate citizenship of the Union in addition. A citizen of India cannot acquire citizenship of any foreign country simultaneously and also a person of Indian origin who voluntarily acquires the citizenship of any foreign State is not entitled to Indian citizenship.

An Indian citizen is not entitled to vote if he is less than 18 years of age on a fixed date and/ or is otherwise disqualified under the Constitution or any law of the appropriate Legislature on the ground of non-residence, unsoundness of mind, crimeor corrupt or illegal practice.

Citizenship of India

Saturday, September 12, 2009

Indian Constitution - part2

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the chairman of Drafting Committee which drafted the Indian Constitution.
India is a secular state is evident from the fact that it has no official or state religion. It is neither patronises nor discriminates against any religion. The constitution of India guarantees freedom of religion and worship to all citizens. Elections to the legislatures in the country are held on the basis of the universal franchise and joint electorates. In the matter of appointment to public services, no citizen can be discriminated against on grounds of religion.
The Directive principles enunciated in the constitution of India are in the nature of directions to the legislature and the executive that they should exercise their authority in such a manner as to ensure due respect for, and observance of these principles. Although these principles are not justiciable, the courts cannot altogether ignore them. On the other hand, fundamental rights are the citizens basic natural and human rights essential for the good of life. These rights have been enumerated in part III of the Constitution and have been made justiciable.

Thursday, September 10, 2009

Know about Indian Constitution - part1

The constitution of India is quasi-federal in nature, designed to work as a Federal Government in normal times and Unitary Government in emergency.
The Government of India is run on the parliamentary System based on adult franchise. The Constitutional Head is the President. The real executive power is vested in the Council of Ministers or the Union Cabinet which is responsible to the Parliament. The council of Ministers is headed by the prime Minister.
The constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on the 26th November, 1949. It was inaugurated on the 26th January, 1950.

History of Olympics

The Olympic games are international athletic competition conducted every 4 years. Usually athlets from various parts of Greece would assemble in Olympics and conduct games. The Greeks developed their body as well as mind. The first recorded Olympic Games were in 776 B.C and they continued till AD394. It was banned by the Roman Emperor, Theodosius. It was revived only in 1896 by a French nobleman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin 'The Olympic motto is 'Swifter, Higher, Stronger' The Olympics committee has framed the rules and regulations. Every participating country can make entries for three games. There are three medals given to the winners, gold for the first, silver for the second and bronze for the third. The first Olympic games were conducted in 1896 in Athens. The winter Olympics include competitions in skiing speed and figure skating, ice hockey and bob sledding. The summer games of the Olympics include, foot races, the pantathelon, wrestling, boxing, horse races, polevault, high jump, swimming, weight lifting and Gymnastics. About 150 countries participate in these Games.They bring about international integration through sports and games.

Wednesday, September 9, 2009

Food crisis

Food is an essential factor for the existence of human being and other living things. Today the world has turned out with tears because of food shortage. Since 1947 the word food crisis being existing. In India after independence, the government has come out with five year plan. The cause of it are 1) rise of population 2) hoarding of food grains by traders 3) shortfall in food grain production 4) influence of public distribution system (PDS).
Increasing the production of food grains by innovative methods and technologies, selling food grains at cost effective price and controlling the population rate can only bring down the food crisis problem. It is the duty of the public to act sensibly to solve this problem


Man is born in this world to enjoy life and should be proud that be belongs to humanity. so we should not waste our life in evils like gambling and drinking. Drinking, people think, it gives them a sort of bliss when they get used to it. They spoil themselves and their family. It is a daily tug of war in the family of the drunkard, between the husband and the wife. The condition of the drunkard is deplorable.
This habit starts only for temporary relief but develops into a permanent and incurable disease then. Government thinks of its financial improvement. So it relaxes prohibition. But addiction to drinking leads to weakening of the manpower which results in decrease in productivity of a nation in all the fields.

Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Nuclear Mishaps

The rate of consumption of energy is increasing at a faster phase than the rate of population growth. So the authorities are exploring the possibilities of tapping the nation's resources to meet this crisis. One of their steps is setting up Nuclear Power Station at several places which also disheartens us.
There is a danger of the world getting polluted and the people getting affected by nuclear waste. The radiation causes cancer in man. As an evident the malfunction of coolant in Chernobyl power station on April 26, 1986 consumed 31 lives and many were affected by savior skin diseases. We need power as well as manpower though nuclear energy is the alternative source for power.

Sunday, September 6, 2009

Need for Women's Education

In ancient times women were given due respect. But in modern days they are still slaves to their own sex. It is very horrifying to see one women making another her slave. It is common even in educated families. Women now occupies high position in many fields. But woman have not developed in themselves the courage to stand against the evils which attack them. Most of the womenfolk in the name of superstitious beliefs spoil their lives as well as others. They have a craze for gold. So people exploit their weakness. Hence the womenfolk need proper education. They should be instructed about the developments made in the nation. In certain villages female children are killed at their birth itself. They are sold to prostitutes. These are all due to their illiteracy. Such people should be educated and guided on the proper lines. In certain places girls are sent to factories and construction work as coolies. Education alone will root out tje evils like dowry system and give women a free and easy living.

Thursday, August 6, 2009

Science and Religion

It is thought that science is against religion. Religion helps us to find the correct path for our life and to purify our life. Science polishes our life. Both are essential for understanding life. Religion dictates life but science experiments with life. Religion guides people to accept certain facts blindly. But science has given us many steps to inquire into a matter. i.e. observation, analysis and inference. Scientific theory is based on facts. Demonstration is the aim of science. It has unravelled many secrets of Nature. Both are essential for humanity. Science is an eye opener with respect to superstitious beliefs preached by religious men. Today scientists and religious men work together for the comfortable and spiritual life of humanity.

Wednesday, August 5, 2009


Corruption is an evil. It is man's creation for his own destruction. It is still becoming worse today. Men want to get things done quickly and selfishness has crept both in the high class and in the low class society. Corruption is nothing but bribing an individual to favor one. People are addicted to it because of poverty, and greed. In olden days people worked selflessly. In this competitive, modern scientific age, people want to raise their standard of living quickly by dishonest means. Corruption has spread all over the world. It is said that politicians and officials are earning a lot of money. Even the so called noble professions like doctors, lawyers and teachers are not free from this malady. From the peon to the high official all are involved in it. Smuggling, black marketing and bootlegging are other forms of corruption. It is still in the news. Corruption is created by masses.Who is to bell this cat to eradicate this evil? People should stop getting presents in the form of money or kind. Gradually it will leave the world.

Sunday, August 2, 2009

High Commissioned Ranks of INDIA

Field Marshal
Lt. General,
Maj. General,
Lieutenant Colonel,
2nd Lieutenant.


Marshal of the Air Force,
Air Chief Marshal,
Air Marshal,
Air Vice-Marshal,
Air Commodore,
Group Captain,
Squadron Leader,
Flight Lieutenant,
Flying Officer,
Pilot Officer.


Admiral of the Fleet,
Lieutenant Commander,
Acting Sub-Lieutenant.